My "Make Sense" Journal!


FIRST AID:


   CHECK OUT > Wild Medicinal Plants 

BELOW:


BUMPS, BRUISES, BURNS, BITES, CUTS, etc. - Learn more at https://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-burns/basics/art-20056649

  • for a free and natural antibiotic, learn to recognize Plantain/Plantago broad leaf or narrow leaf, which grows almost everywhere, chew it up and place it on affected area.
  • to stop bleeding, you can use hand pressure and Plantain/Plantago broad leaf or narrow leaf; it is also a blood coagulant/thickener
  • elevate injured area if possible to keep the blood from flowing there
  • for burns and bruises, use cool to cold water as soon as possible, then apply a cold compress for several minutes, or until it becomes too cold or uncomfortable (a bag of frozen peas or small beans wrapped in a thin cloth works well as a compress)
     

BROKEN BONES - Source: https://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-fractures/basics/art-20056641

  • A fracture is a broken bone. It requires medical attention. If the broken bone is the result of major trauma or injury, call 911 or your local emergency number. Also call for emergency help if:

    • The person is unresponsive, isn't breathing or isn't moving. Begin CPR if there's no breathing or heartbeat.
    • There is heavy bleeding.
    • Even gentle pressure or movement causes pain.
    • The limb or joint appears deformed.
    • The bone has pierced the skin.
    • The extremity of the injured arm or leg, such as a toe or finger, is numb or bluish at the tip.
    • You suspect a bone is broken in the neck, head or back.
  • Don't move the person except if necessary to avoid further injury. Take these actions immediately while waiting for medical help:

    • Stop any bleeding. Apply pressure to the wound with a sterile bandage, a clean cloth or a clean piece of clothing.
    • Immobilize the injured area. Don't try to realign the bone or push a bone that's sticking out back in. If you've been trained in how to splint and professional help isn't readily available, apply a splint to the area above and below the fracture sites. Padding the splints can help reduce discomfort.
    • Apply ice packs to limit swelling and help relieve pain. Don't apply ice directly to the skin. Wrap the ice in a towel, piece of cloth or some other material.
    • Treat for shock. If the person feels faint or is breathing in short, rapid breaths, lay the person down with the head slightly lower than the trunk and, if possible, elevate the legs.

DROWNING - Source: https://www.webmd.com/first-aid/drowning-treatment 

  • Call 911 or notify lifeguard if someone is drowning.
    If you are alone, follow the steps below.
  • Move the Person - Take the person out of the water
  • Check for Breathing - Place your ear next to the person's mouth and nose. Do you feel air on your cheek? Look to see if the person's chest is moving
  • If the Person is Not Breathing, Check the person's pulse for 10 seconds.
  • If There is No Pulse, Start CPR:
  • Carefully place person on back.
  • For an adult or child, place the heel of one hand on the center of the chest at the nipple line. You can also push with one hand on top of the other. For an infant, place two fingers on the breastbone.
  • For an adult or child, press down at least 2 inches. Make sure not to press on ribs.
  • For an infant, press down about 1 and 1/2 inches. Make sure not to press on the end of the breastbone.
  • Do chest compressions only, at the rate of 100-120 per minute or more. Let the chest rise completely between pushes
  • Check to see if the person has started breathing
  • Repeat if Person Is Still Not Breathing
  • Note that these instructions are not meant to replace CPR training. Classes are available through the American Red Cross, local hospitals, and other organizations
  • If you've been trained in CPR, you can now open the airway by tilting the head back and lifting the chin.
  • Pinch the nose of the victim closed. Take a normal breath, cover the victim's mouth with yours to create an airtight seal, and then give 2 one-second breaths as you watch for the chest to rise.
  • Give 2 breaths followed by 30 chest compressions
  • Continue this cycle of 30 compressions and 2 breaths until the person starts breathing or emergency help arrives.

SHOCK https://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-shock/basics/art-20056620 is a critical condition brought on by the sudden drop in blood flow through the body. Shock may result from trauma, heatstroke, blood loss, an allergic reaction, severe infection, poisoning, severe burns or other causes. When a person is in shock, his or her organs aren't getting enough blood or oxygen. If untreated, this can lead to permanent organ damage or even death.

Signs and symptoms of shock vary depending on circumstances and may include:

  • Cool, clammy skin
  • Pale or ashen skin
  • Bluish tinge to lips or fingernails (or gray in the case of dark complexions)
  • Rapid pulse
  • Rapid breathing
  • Nausea or vomiting
  • Enlarged pupils
  • Weakness or fatigue
  • Dizziness or fainting
  • Changes in mental status or behavior, such as anxiousness or agitation

Seek emergency medical care

 

If you suspect a person is in shock, call 911 or your local emergency number. Then immediately take the following steps:

  • Lay the person down and elevate the legs and feet slightly, unless you think this may cause pain or further injury.
  • Keep the person still and don't move him or her unless necessary.
  • Begin CPR if the person shows no signs of life, such as not breathing, coughing or moving.
  • Loosen tight clothing and, if needed, cover the person with a blanket to prevent chilling.
  • Don't let the person eat or drink anything.
  • If you suspect that the person is having an allergic reaction, and you have access to an epinephrine autoinjector, use it according to its instructions.
  • If the person is bleeding, hold pressure over the bleeding area, using a towel or sheet.
  • If the person vomits or begins bleeding from the mouth, and no spinal injury is suspected, turn him or her onto a side to prevent choking.

CHOKING:https://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-choking/basics/art-20056637

A step-by-step guide explaining what to do in a choking emergency.

By Mayo Clinic Staff

Choking happens when an object lodges in the throat or windpipe blocking the flow of air. In adults, a piece of food is usually to blame. Young children often choke on small objects. Choking is life-threatening. It cuts off oxygen to the brain. Give first aid as quickly as possible if you or someone else is choking.

 

Watch for these signs of choking:

  • One or both hands clutched to the throat
  • A look of panic, shock or confusion
  • Inability to talk
  • Strained or noisy breathing
  • Squeaky sounds when trying to breathe
  • Cough, which may either be weak or forceful
  • Skin, lips and nails that change color turning blue or gray
  • Loss of consciousness

If a choking person can cough forcefully, let the person keep coughing. Coughing might naturally remove the stuck object.

If a person can't cough, talk, cry or laugh forcefully, give first aid to the person.

The American Red Cross recommends the following steps:

  • Give five back blows. Stand to the side and just behind a choking adult. For a child, kneel down behind. Place your arm across the person's chest to support the person's body. Bend the person over at the waist to face the ground. Strike five separate times between the person's shoulder blades with the heel of your hand.
  • Give five abdominal thrusts. If back blows don't remove the stuck object, give five abdominal thrusts, also known as the Heimlich maneuver.
  • Alternate between five blows and five thrusts until the blockage is dislodged.

Some sources only teach the abdominal thrust. It's OK not to use back blows if you haven't learned the back-blow technique. Both approaches are acceptable for adults and children older than age 1.

To give abdominal thrusts to someone else:

  • Stand behind the person. For a child, kneel down behind. Place one foot slightly in front of the other for balance. Wrap your arms around the waist. Tip the person forward slightly.
  • Make a fist with one hand. Put it just above the person's navel.
  • Grasp the fist with the other hand. Press into the stomach, also called the abdomen, with a quick, upward thrust as if trying to lift the person up. For a child, use gentle yet firm pressure to avoid damaging the internal organs.
  • Give five abdominal thrusts. Check if the blockage has been removed. Repeat as needed.

If you're the only rescuer, give back blows and abdominal thrusts first. Then call 911 or your local emergency number for help. If another person is there, have that person call for help while you give first aid.

If the person becomes unconscious, start standard cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) with chest compressions and rescue breaths.

If the person is pregnant or if you can't get your arms around the stomach, give chest thrusts:

  • Put your hands at the base of the breastbone, just above the joining of the lowest ribs.
  • Press hard into the chest with a quick thrust. This is the same action as the Heimlich maneuver.
  • Repeat until the blockage is removed from the airway.

To clear the airway of an unconscious person:

  • Lower the person onto the floor, with the back on the floor and arms to the sides.
  • Clear the airway. If you can see the object, reach a finger into the mouth to sweep out the object. Never finger sweep if you can't see the object. You risk pushing the blockage deeper into the airway. This is very risky with young children.
  • Begin CPR if the person still doesn't respond. If the airway is still blocked, use chest compressions such as those that are used in CPR to remove the stuck object. Only use two rescue breaths per cycle. Recheck the mouth regularly for the object.

To clear the airway of a choking infant younger than age 1:

  • Sit and hold the infant facedown on your forearm. Rest your forearm on your thigh. Hold the infant's chin and jaw to support the head. Place the head lower than the trunk.
  • Thump the infant gently but firmly five times on the middle of the back. Use the heel of your hand. Point your fingers up so that you don't hit the back of the infant's head. Gravity and the back thumps should release the blockage.
  • Turn the infant faceup on your forearm if breathing hasn't started. Rest your arm on your thigh. Place the infant's head lower than the trunk.
  • Give five gentle but firm chest compressions with your fingers. Place two fingers just below the nipple line. Press down about 1 1/2 inches. Let the chest rise between each compression.
  • Repeat the back thumps and chest compressions if breathing doesn't start. Call for emergency medical help.
  • Begin infant CPR if the airway is clear but the infant doesn't start breathing.

If you're alone and choking:

Call 911 or your local emergency number right away. Then, give yourself abdominal thrusts, also called the Heimlich maneuver, to remove the stuck object.

  • Place a fist slightly above your navel.
  • Grasp your fist with the other hand.
  • Bend over a hard surface. A countertop or chair will do.
  • Shove your fist inward and upward.

To prepare yourself for these situations, learn the Heimlich maneuver and CPR in a certified first-aid training course.


HEART ATTACK: https://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-heart-attack/basics/art-20056679

 

Call 911 or emergency medical help if you think you might be having a heart attack. Someone having a heart attack may have any or all of the following:

  • Chest pain, pressure or tightness, or a squeezing or aching sensation in the center of the chest
  • Pain or discomfort that spreads to the shoulder, arm, back, neck, jaw, teeth or occasionally upper abdomen
  • Nausea, indigestion, heartburn or abdominal pain
  • Shortness of breath
  • Lightheadedness, dizziness, fainting
  • Sweating
 

A heart attack generally causes chest pain for more than 15 minutes. Some people have mild chest pain, while others have more-severe pain. The discomfort is commonly described as a pressure or chest heaviness, although some people have no chest pain or pressure at all. Women tend to have more-vague symptoms, such as nausea or back or jaw pain.

Some heart attacks strike suddenly, but many people have warning signs hours or days in advance.

What to do if you or someone else may be having a heart attack

 
  • Call 911 or your local emergency number. Don't ignore the symptoms of a heart attack. If you can't get an ambulance or emergency vehicle to come to you, have a neighbor or a friend drive you to the nearest hospital. Drive yourself only if you have no other option. Because your condition can worsen, driving yourself puts you and others at risk.
  • Chew and swallow an aspirin while waiting for emergency help. Aspirin helps keep your blood from clotting. When taken during a heart attack, it could reduce heart damage. Don't take aspirin if you are allergic to it or have been told by your health care provider never to take aspirin.
  • Take nitroglycerin, if prescribed. If you think you're having a heart attack and your health care provider has previously prescribed nitroglycerin for you, take it as directed while waiting for emergency medical help.
  • Begin CPR if the person is unconscious. If the person isn't breathing or you don't find a pulse, begin CPR to keep blood flowing after you call for emergency medical help.

    Push hard and fast on the center of the person's chest in a fairly rapid rhythm about 100 to 120 compressions a minute.

  • If an automated external defibrillator (AED) is immediately available and the person is unconscious, follow the device instructions for using it.

STOPPED HEART? Do CPR - Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

CPR for adults - Source: https://www.redcross.org/take-a-class/cpr/performing-cpr/hands-only-cpr

  • Place the heel of one hand on the center of the chest.
  • Place the heel of the other hand on top of the first hand, then lace your fingers together.
  • Position your body so that your shoulders are directly over your hands, and keep your arms straight.
  • Push hard, push fast. Use your body weight to help you administer compressions that are at least 2 inches deep and delivered at a rate of at least 100 compressions per minute. (Just be sure to let chest rise completely between compressions.
  • Keep pushing. Continue hands-only CPR until you see obvious signs of life, like breathing, another trained responder or EMS professional can take over, you're too exhausted to continue, an AED becomes available, or the scene becomes unsafe. To see how to perform hands-only CPR, watch our video
     

CPR for infants or children -  Source: https://www.redcross.org/take-a-class/cpr/performing-cpr/child-baby-cpr 

  • Deliver 2 rescue breaths if the child or infant isn't breathing.
  • With the head tilted back slightly and the chin lifted,
  • pinch the child's nose shut,
  • make a complete seal by placing your mouth over the child's mouth
  •  and breathe into the child's mouth twice.
  • For infants, use your mouth to make a complete seal over the infant's mouth and nose,
  • then blow in for one second to make the chest clearly rise.
  • Now, deliver two rescue breaths.

ANAPHYLAXIS: https://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-anaphylaxis/basics/art-20056608

 A life-threatening allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) can cause shock, a sudden drop in blood pressure and trouble breathing. In people who have an allergy, anaphylaxis can occur minutes after exposure to a specific allergy-causing substance (allergen). In some cases, there may be a delayed reaction, or anaphylaxis may occur without an obvious trigger.

 

If you're with someone having an allergic reaction with signs of anaphylaxis:

 
  • Immediately call 911 or your local medical emergency number.
  • Ask if the person is carrying an epinephrine autoinjector (EpiPen, Auvi-Q, others) to treat an allergic attack.
  • If the person needs to use an autoinjector, ask whether you should help inject the medication. This is usually done by pressing the autoinjector against the person's thigh.
  • Have the person lie face up and be still.
  • Loosen tight clothing and cover the person with a blanket. Don't give the person anything to drink.
  • If there's vomiting or bleeding from the mouth, turn the person to the side to prevent choking.
  • If there are no signs of breathing, coughing or movement, begin CPR. Do uninterrupted chest presses about 100 every minute until paramedics arrive.
  • Get emergency treatment even if symptoms start to improve. After anaphylaxis, it's possible for symptoms to start again (recur). Monitoring in a hospital for several hours is usually necessary.
 

If you're with someone having symptoms of anaphylaxis, don't wait to see whether symptoms get better. Seek emergency treatment right away. In severe cases, untreated anaphylaxis can lead to death within half an hour.

An antihistamine pill, such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl), isn't enough to treat anaphylaxis. These medications can help relieve allergy symptoms, but they work too slowly in a severe reaction.

Symptoms of anaphylaxis include:

 
  • Skin reactions, including hives, itching, and skin that becomes flushed or changes color
  • Swelling of the face, eyes, lips or throat
  • Narrowing of the airways, leading to wheezing and trouble breathing or swallowing
  • A weak and rapid pulse
  • Nausea, vomiting or diarrhea
  • Dizziness, fainting or unconsciousness
 

Some common anaphylaxis triggers include:

  • Medications
  • Latex
  • Foods such as peanuts, tree nuts, fish and shellfish
  • Insect stings from bees, yellow jackets, wasps, hornets and fire ants

If you've had any kind of severe allergic reaction in the past, ask your doctor if you should be prescribed an epinephrine autoinjector to carry with you.


POISONING: https://www.mayoclinic.org/first-aid/first-aid-poisoning/basics/art-20056657

Poisoning is injury or death due to swallowing, inhaling, touching or injecting various drugs, chemicals, venoms or gases. Many substances such as drugs and carbon monoxide are poisonous only in higher concentrations or dosages. Certain types of cleaners are only harmful if ingested, while others also emit toxic gases/fumes. Children are particularly sensitive to even small amounts of certain drugs and chemicals.

 

How you treat someone who may have been poisoned depends on:

  • The person's symptoms
  • The person's age
  • Whether you know the type and amount of the substance that caused poisoning

There are two ways to get help from Poison Control in the U.S: online at www.poison.org or by calling 800-222-1222. Both options are free, confidential, and available 24 hours a day. It may help to place a refrigerator magnet or a visible sticker in your home with the poison control number. Poison control centers are excellent resources for poisoning information and, in many situations, may advise that in-home observation is all that's needed.

When to suspect poisoning

 

Poisoning signs and symptoms can mimic other conditions, such as seizure, alcohol intoxication, stroke and insulin reaction. Signs and symptoms of poisoning may include:

  • Burns or redness around the mouth and lips
  • Breath that smells like chemicals, such as gasoline or paint thinner
  • Vomiting
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Drowsiness
  • Confusion or other altered mental status
 

If you suspect poisoning, be alert for clues such as empty pill bottles or packages, scattered pills, and burns, stains and odors on the person or nearby objects. With a child, consider the possibility that he or she may have applied medicated patches, taken prescription medications or swallowed a button battery.

When to call for help

 

Call 911 or your local emergency number immediately if the person is:

  • Drowsy or unconscious
  • Having difficulty breathing or has stopped breathing
  • Uncontrollably restless or agitated
  • Having seizures
  • Known to have taken medications, or any other substance, intentionally or accidentally overdosed (in these situations the poisoning typically involves larger amounts, often along with alcohol)
 

Call Poison Help at 800-222-1222 in the United States or your regional poison control center in the following situations:

  • The person is stable and has no symptoms
  • The person is going to be transported to the local emergency department

Be ready to describe the person's symptoms, age, weight, other medications he or she is taking, and any information you have about the poison. Try to determine the amount ingested and how long since the person was exposed to it. If possible, have on hand the pill bottle, medication package or other suspect container so that you can refer to its label when speaking with the poison control center.

What to do while waiting for help

 

Take the following actions until help arrives:

  • Swallowed poison. Remove anything remaining in the person's mouth. If the suspected poison is a household cleaner or other chemical, read the container's label and follow instructions for accidental poisoning.
  • Poison on the skin. Remove any contaminated clothing using gloves. Rinse the skin for 15 to 20 minutes in a shower or with a hose.
  • Poison in the eye. Gently flush the eye with cool or lukewarm water for 20 minutes or until help arrives.
  • Inhaled poison. Get the person into fresh air as soon as possible.
  • If the person vomits, turn his or her head to the side to prevent choking.
  • Begin CPR if the person shows no signs of life, such as moving, breathing or coughing.
  • Call Poison Help at 800-222-1222 in the United States or your regional poison control for additional instructions.
  • Have somebody gather pill bottles, packages or containers with labels, and any other information about the poison to send along with the ambulance team.
 

In the case of an opioid overdose

 

If the person is at risk of overdose of opioid pain medication and naloxone (Narcan) is available, please administer. Increasingly, health care providers are giving people Narcan injectable prescriptions if they are at risk of overdose. Loved ones should be familiar with how to use them.

 

Caution

 
  • Syrup of ipecac. Don't give syrup of ipecac or do anything to induce vomiting. Expert groups, including the American Association of Poison Control Centers and the American Academy of Pediatrics, no longer endorse using ipecac in children or adults who have taken pills or other potentially poisonous substances. No good evidence proves its effectiveness, and it often can do more harm than good.

     

    If you still have old bottles of syrup of ipecac in your home, throw them away.

  • Button batteries. The small, flat batteries used in watches and other electronics particularly the larger, nickel-sized ones are especially dangerous to small children. A battery stuck in the esophagus can cause severe tissue burns.

    If you suspect that a child has swallowed one of these batteries, immediately take him or her for an emergency X-ray to determine its location. If the battery is in the esophagus, it will have to be removed. If it has passed into the stomach, it's usually safe to allow it to pass on through the intestinal tract.

  • Medicated patches. If you think a child got hold of medicated patches adhesive products for transdermal drug delivery carefully inspect the child's skin and remove any that are attached. Also check the roof of the mouth, where medicated patches can get stuck if the child sucks on them.

 

 

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