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Wild Medicinal Plants
BUMPS, BRUISES, BURNS, BITES, CUTS, etc. - Learn more at
- for a free and natural
antibiotic, learn to recognize Plantain/Plantago
broad leaf or narrow
leaf, which grows almost everywhere, chew it up and place it on affected
- to stop bleeding, you can
use hand pressure and Plantain/Plantago
broad leaf or narrow
leaf; it is also a blood coagulant/thickener
- elevate injured area if
possible to keep the blood from flowing there
- for burns and bruises, use
cool to cold water as soon as possible, then apply a cold compress for several
minutes, or until it becomes too cold or uncomfortable (a bag of frozen peas
or small beans wrapped in a thin cloth works well as a compress)
BROKEN BONES -
A fracture is a broken bone. It requires medical attention. If the broken
bone is the result of major trauma or injury, call 911 or your local
emergency number. Also call for emergency help if:
- The person is unresponsive, isn't
breathing or isn't moving. Begin CPR if there's no breathing or heartbeat.
- There is heavy bleeding.
- Even gentle pressure or movement causes
- The limb or joint appears deformed.
- The bone has pierced the skin.
- The extremity of the injured arm or leg,
such as a toe or finger, is numb or bluish at the tip.
- You suspect a bone is broken in the neck,
head or back.
Don't move the person except if necessary to avoid further injury.
Take these actions immediately while waiting for medical help:
- Stop any bleeding. Apply
pressure to the wound with a sterile bandage, a clean cloth or a clean
piece of clothing.
- Immobilize the injured area. Don't
try to realign the bone or push a bone that's sticking out back in. If
you've been trained in how to splint and professional help isn't readily
available, apply a splint to the area above and below the fracture sites.
Padding the splints can help reduce discomfort.
- Apply ice packs to limit swelling
and help relieve pain. Don't apply ice directly to the skin. Wrap
the ice in a towel, piece of cloth or some other material.
- Treat for shock. If the
person feels faint or is breathing in short, rapid breaths, lay the person
down with the head slightly lower than the trunk and, if possible, elevate
DROWNING - Source:
Call 911 or notify lifeguard if someone is
If you are alone, follow the steps below.
- Move the Person - Take the
person out of the water
- Check for Breathing -
Place your ear next to the person's mouth and nose. Do you feel air on your
cheek? Look to see if the person's chest is moving
- If the Person is Not
Breathing, Check the person's pulse for 10 seconds.
- If There is No Pulse,
- Carefully place person on
- For an adult or child,
place the heel of one hand on the center of the chest at the nipple line.
You can also push with one hand on top of the other. For an infant,
place two fingers on the breastbone.
- For an adult or child,
press down at least 2 inches. Make sure not to press on ribs.
- For an infant, press down
about 1 and 1/2 inches. Make sure not to press on the end of the breastbone.
- Do chest compressions
only, at the rate of 100-120 per minute or more. Let the chest rise
completely between pushes
- Check to see if the person
has started breathing
- Repeat if Person Is Still
- Note that these
instructions are not meant to replace CPR training. Classes are available
through the American Red Cross, local hospitals, and other organizations
- If you've been trained in
CPR, you can now open the airway by tilting the head back and lifting the
- Pinch the nose of the
victim closed. Take a normal breath, cover the victim's mouth with
yours to create an airtight seal, and then give 2 one-second breaths as you
watch for the chest to rise.
- Give 2 breaths followed by
30 chest compressions
- Continue this cycle of 30
compressions and 2 breaths until the person starts breathing or emergency
is a critical condition brought on by the sudden drop in blood flow through
the body. Shock may result from trauma, heatstroke, blood loss, an allergic
reaction, severe infection, poisoning, severe burns or other causes. When a
person is in shock, his or her organs aren't getting enough blood or oxygen.
If untreated, this can lead to permanent organ damage or even death.
Signs and symptoms of shock vary depending on
circumstances and may include:
- Cool, clammy
- Pale or ashen
- Bluish tinge to
lips or fingernails (or gray in the case of dark complexions)
- Rapid pulse
- Rapid breathing
- Nausea or
- Enlarged pupils
- Weakness or
- Dizziness or
- Changes in
mental status or behavior, such as anxiousness or agitation
Seek emergency medical care
If you suspect a person is in shock, call
911 or your local emergency number. Then immediately take the
- Lay the person
down and elevate the legs and feet slightly, unless you think this may cause
pain or further injury.
- Keep the person
still and don't move him or her unless necessary.
- Begin CPR if the
person shows no signs of life, such as not breathing, coughing or moving.
- Loosen tight
clothing and, if needed, cover the person with a blanket to prevent
- Don't let the
person eat or drink anything.
- If you suspect
that the person is having an allergic reaction, and you have access to an
epinephrine autoinjector, use it according to its instructions.
- If the person is
bleeding, hold pressure over the bleeding area, using a towel or sheet.
- If the person
vomits or begins bleeding from the mouth, and no spinal injury is suspected,
turn him or her onto a side to prevent choking.
Choking happens when an object lodges in the throat or windpipe blocking the
flow of air. In adults, a piece of food is usually to blame. Young children
often choke on small objects. Choking is life-threatening. It cuts off oxygen
to the brain. Give first aid as quickly as possible if you or someone else is
Watch for these signs of choking:
- One or both hands clutched to the throat
- A look of panic, shock or confusion
- Inability to talk
- Strained or noisy breathing
- Squeaky sounds when trying to breathe
- Cough, which may either be weak or forceful
- Skin, lips and nails that change color
turning blue or gray
- Loss of consciousness
If a choking person can cough forcefully, let the person keep
coughing. Coughing might naturally remove the stuck object.
If a person can't cough, talk, cry or laugh forcefully, give first aid
to the person.
The American Red Cross recommends the following steps:
- Give five back blows. Stand
to the side and just behind a choking adult. For a child, kneel down behind.
Place your arm across the person's chest to support the person's body. Bend
the person over at the waist to face the ground. Strike five separate times
between the person's shoulder blades with the heel of your hand.
- Give five abdominal thrusts. If
back blows don't remove the stuck object, give five abdominal thrusts, also
known as the Heimlich maneuver.
- Alternate between five blows and
five thrusts until the blockage is dislodged.
Some sources only teach the abdominal thrust. It's OK not to use back blows if
you haven't learned the back-blow technique. Both approaches are acceptable
for adults and children older than age 1.
To give abdominal thrusts to someone else:
- Stand behind the person. For
a child, kneel down behind. Place one foot slightly in front of the other
for balance. Wrap your arms around the waist. Tip the person forward
- Make a fist with one hand. Put
it just above the person's navel.
- Grasp the fist with the other hand. Press
into the stomach, also called the abdomen, with a quick, upward thrust — as
if trying to lift the person up. For a child, use gentle yet firm pressure
to avoid damaging the internal organs.
- Give five abdominal thrusts. Check
if the blockage has been removed. Repeat as needed.
If you're the only rescuer, give back blows and abdominal thrusts first. Then
call 911 or your local emergency number for help. If another person is there,
have that person call for help while you give first aid.
If the person becomes unconscious, start standard cardiopulmonary
resuscitation (CPR) with chest compressions and rescue breaths.
If the person is pregnant or if you can't get your arms around the
stomach, give chest thrusts:
- Put your hands at the base of the
breastbone, just above the joining of the lowest ribs.
- Press hard into the chest with a
quick thrust. This is the same action as the Heimlich maneuver.
- Repeat until the blockage is removed
from the airway.
To clear the airway of an unconscious person:
- Lower the person onto the floor, with
the back on the floor and arms to the sides.
- Clear the airway. If you
can see the object, reach a finger into the mouth to sweep out the object.
Never finger sweep if you can't see the object. You risk pushing the
blockage deeper into the airway. This is very risky with young children.
- Begin CPR if
the person still doesn't respond. If the airway is still blocked,
use chest compressions such as those that are used in CPR to
remove the stuck object. Only use two rescue breaths per cycle. Recheck the
mouth regularly for the object.
To clear the airway of a choking infant younger than age 1:
- Sit and hold the infant facedown on
your forearm. Rest your forearm on your thigh. Hold the infant's
chin and jaw to support the head. Place the head lower than the trunk.
- Thump the infant gently but firmly
five times on the middle of the back. Use the heel of your hand.
Point your fingers up so that you don't hit the back of the infant's head.
Gravity and the back thumps should release the blockage.
- Turn the infant faceup on your
forearm if breathing hasn't started. Rest your arm on your thigh.
Place the infant's head lower than the trunk.
- Give five gentle but firm chest
compressions with your fingers. Place two fingers just below the
nipple line. Press down about 1 1/2 inches. Let the chest rise between each
- Repeat the back thumps and chest
compressions if breathing doesn't start. Call for emergency medical
- Begin infant CPR if
the airway is clear but the infant doesn't start breathing.
If you're alone and choking:
Call 911 or your local emergency number right away. Then, give yourself
abdominal thrusts, also called the Heimlich maneuver, to remove the stuck
- Place a fist slightly above your
- Grasp your fist with the other hand.
- Bend over a hard surface. A
countertop or chair will do.
- Shove your fist inward and upward.
To prepare yourself for these situations, learn the Heimlich maneuver and CPR in
a certified first-aid training course.
Call 911 or emergency medical help if you think you might be having a heart
attack. Someone having a heart attack may have any or all of the following:
- Chest pain, pressure or tightness, or a
squeezing or aching sensation in the center of the chest
- Pain or discomfort that spreads to the
shoulder, arm, back, neck, jaw, teeth or occasionally upper abdomen
- Nausea, indigestion, heartburn or abdominal
- Shortness of breath
- Lightheadedness, dizziness, fainting
A heart attack generally causes chest pain for more than 15 minutes. Some
people have mild chest pain, while others have more-severe pain. The
discomfort is commonly described as a pressure or chest heaviness, although
some people have no chest pain or pressure at all. Women tend to have
more-vague symptoms, such as nausea or back or jaw pain.
Some heart attacks strike suddenly, but many people have warning signs hours
or days in advance.
What to do if you or someone else may be having a heart attack
- Call 911 or your local emergency
number. Don't ignore the symptoms of a heart attack. If you can't
get an ambulance or emergency vehicle to come to you, have a neighbor or a
friend drive you to the nearest hospital. Drive yourself only if you have no
other option. Because your condition can worsen, driving yourself puts you
and others at risk.
- Chew and swallow an aspirin while
waiting for emergency help. Aspirin helps keep your blood from clotting.
When taken during a heart attack, it could reduce heart damage. Don't take
aspirin if you are allergic to it or have been told by your health care
provider never to take aspirin.
- Take nitroglycerin, if
prescribed. If you think you're having a heart attack and your health care
provider has previously prescribed nitroglycerin for you, take it as
directed while waiting for emergency medical help.
Begin CPR if the
person is unconscious. If the person isn't breathing or you don't
find a pulse, begin CPR to keep blood flowing after you call for emergency
Push hard and fast on the
center of the person's chest in a fairly rapid rhythm — about 100 to 120
compressions a minute.
- If an automated external
defibrillator (AED) is immediately available and the person is
unconscious, follow the device instructions for using it.
Do CPR - Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
CPR for adults - Source:
- Place the heel of one hand
on the center of the chest.
- Place the heel of the
other hand on top of the first hand, then lace your fingers together.
- Position your body so that
your shoulders are directly over your hands, and keep your arms straight.
- Push hard, push fast. Use
your body weight to help you administer compressions that are at least 2
inches deep and delivered at a rate of at least 100 compressions per minute.
(Just be sure to let chest rise completely between compressions.
- Keep pushing. Continue
hands-only CPR until you see obvious signs of life, like breathing, another
trained responder or EMS professional can take over, you're too exhausted to
continue, an AED becomes available, or the scene becomes unsafe. To see how
to perform hands-only CPR, watch our video.
CPR for infants or children - Source:
- Deliver 2 rescue breaths
if the child or infant isn't breathing.
- With the head tilted back
slightly and the chin lifted,
- pinch the child's nose
- make a complete seal by
placing your mouth over the child's mouth
- and breathe into the
child's mouth twice.
- For infants, use your
mouth to make a complete seal over the infant's mouth and nose,
- then blow in for one
second to make the chest clearly rise.
deliver two rescue breaths.
life-threatening allergic reaction (anaphylaxis) can cause shock, a sudden
drop in blood pressure and trouble breathing. In people who have an allergy,
anaphylaxis can occur minutes after exposure to a specific allergy-causing
substance (allergen). In some cases, there may be a delayed reaction, or
anaphylaxis may occur without an obvious trigger.
If you're with someone having an allergic reaction with signs of anaphylaxis:
- Immediately call 911 or your local medical
- Ask if the person is carrying an epinephrine
autoinjector (EpiPen, Auvi-Q, others) to treat an allergic attack.
- If the person needs to use an autoinjector,
ask whether you should help inject the medication. This is usually done by
pressing the autoinjector against the person's thigh.
- Have the person lie face up and be still.
- Loosen tight clothing and cover the person
with a blanket. Don't give the person anything to drink.
- If there's vomiting or bleeding from the
mouth, turn the person to the side to prevent choking.
- If there are no signs of breathing, coughing
or movement, begin CPR. Do uninterrupted chest presses — about 100 every
minute — until paramedics arrive.
- Get emergency treatment even if symptoms
start to improve. After anaphylaxis, it's possible for symptoms to start
again (recur). Monitoring in a hospital for several hours is usually
If you're with someone having symptoms of anaphylaxis, don't wait to see
whether symptoms get better. Seek emergency treatment right away. In severe
cases, untreated anaphylaxis can lead to death within half an hour.
An antihistamine pill, such as diphenhydramine (Benadryl), isn't enough to
treat anaphylaxis. These medications can help relieve allergy symptoms, but
they work too slowly in a severe reaction.
Symptoms of anaphylaxis include:
- Skin reactions, including hives, itching,
and skin that becomes flushed or changes color
- Swelling of the face, eyes, lips or throat
- Narrowing of the airways, leading to
wheezing and trouble breathing or swallowing
- A weak and rapid pulse
- Nausea, vomiting or diarrhea
- Dizziness, fainting or unconsciousness
Some common anaphylaxis triggers include:
- Foods such as peanuts, tree nuts, fish and
- Insect stings from bees, yellow jackets,
wasps, hornets and fire ants
If you've had any kind of severe allergic reaction in the past, ask your
doctor if you should be prescribed an epinephrine autoinjector to carry with
Poisoning is injury or death due to swallowing, inhaling, touching or
injecting various drugs, chemicals, venoms or gases. Many substances — such as
drugs and carbon monoxide — are poisonous only in higher concentrations or
dosages. Certain types of cleaners are only harmful if ingested, while others
also emit toxic gases/fumes. Children are particularly sensitive to even small
amounts of certain drugs and chemicals.
How you treat someone who may have been poisoned depends on:
- The person's symptoms
- The person's age
- Whether you know the type and amount of the
substance that caused poisoning
There are two ways to get help from Poison Control in the U.S: online at www.poison.org or
by calling 800-222-1222. Both options are free,
confidential, and available 24 hours a day. It may help to place a
refrigerator magnet or a visible sticker in your home with the poison control
number. Poison control centers are excellent resources for poisoning
information and, in many situations, may advise that in-home observation is
all that's needed.
When to suspect poisoning
Poisoning signs and symptoms can mimic other conditions, such as seizure,
alcohol intoxication, stroke and insulin reaction. Signs and symptoms of
poisoning may include:
- Burns or redness around the mouth and lips
- Breath that smells like chemicals, such as
gasoline or paint thinner
- Difficulty breathing
- Confusion or other altered mental status
If you suspect poisoning, be alert for clues such as empty pill bottles or
packages, scattered pills, and burns, stains and odors on the person or nearby
objects. With a child, consider the possibility that he or she may have
applied medicated patches, taken prescription medications or swallowed a
When to call for help
Call 911 or your local emergency number immediately if the person is:
- Drowsy or unconscious
- Having difficulty breathing or has stopped
- Uncontrollably restless or agitated
- Having seizures
- Known to have taken medications, or any
other substance, intentionally or accidentally overdosed (in these
situations the poisoning typically involves larger amounts, often along with
Call Poison Help at 800-222-1222 in the United
States or your regional poison control center in the following situations:
- The person is stable and has no symptoms
- The person is going to be transported to the
local emergency department
Be ready to describe the person's symptoms, age, weight, other medications he
or she is taking, and any information you have about the poison. Try to
determine the amount ingested and how long since the person was exposed to it.
If possible, have on hand the pill bottle, medication package or other suspect
container so that you can refer to its label when speaking with the poison
What to do while waiting for help
Take the following actions until help arrives:
- Swallowed poison. Remove
anything remaining in the person's mouth. If the suspected poison is a
household cleaner or other chemical, read the container's label and follow
instructions for accidental poisoning.
- Poison on the skin. Remove
any contaminated clothing using gloves. Rinse the skin for 15 to 20 minutes
in a shower or with a hose.
- Poison in the eye. Gently
flush the eye with cool or lukewarm water for 20 minutes or until help
- Inhaled poison. Get the
person into fresh air as soon as possible.
- If the person vomits, turn
his or her head to the side to prevent choking.
- Begin CPR if the person shows no
signs of life, such as moving, breathing or coughing.
- Call Poison Help at 800-222-1222 in
the United States or your regional poison control for additional
- Have somebody gather pill bottles,
packages or containers with labels, and any other information about
the poison to send along with the ambulance team.
In the case of an opioid overdose
If the person is at risk of overdose of opioid pain medication and naloxone (Narcan)
is available, please administer. Increasingly, health care providers are
giving people Narcan injectable prescriptions if they are at risk of overdose.
Loved ones should be familiar with how to use them.
Syrup of ipecac. Don't
give syrup of ipecac or do anything to induce vomiting. Expert groups,
including the American Association of Poison Control Centers and the
American Academy of Pediatrics, no longer endorse using ipecac in children
or adults who have taken pills or other potentially poisonous substances. No
good evidence proves its effectiveness, and it often can do more harm than
If you still have old
bottles of syrup of ipecac in your home, throw them away.
Button batteries. The
small, flat batteries used in watches and other electronics — particularly
the larger, nickel-sized ones — are especially dangerous to small children.
A battery stuck in the esophagus can cause severe tissue burns.
If you suspect that a
child has swallowed one of these batteries, immediately take him or her for
an emergency X-ray to determine its location. If the battery is in the
esophagus, it will have to be removed. If it has passed into the stomach,
it's usually safe to allow it to pass on through the intestinal tract.
- Medicated patches. If you
think a child got hold of medicated patches — adhesive products for
transdermal drug delivery — carefully inspect the child's skin and remove
any that are attached. Also check the roof of the mouth, where medicated
patches can get stuck if the child sucks on them.